Asymmetries in the peace process: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes
May 2005
Accord Armed Groups: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
LTTE advisor Rudrakumaran argues that the international climate in which negotiations take place is biased in favour of states. Anti-terrorist legislation has erected artificial power asymmetries, limiting the LTTE’s involvement in peace talks.

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process (Portuguese)

Oct 2004

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process (Accord issue 15, 2004) asks ‘what next?’ for a nation that has secured a ‘military peace’ but still faces huge challenges in post-conflict peacebuilding and a secessionist war in Cabinda. It provides lessons from Angola’s history of conflict and peacemaking, and reviews past peace processes and the roles played by Angolan civil society, institutions such as the United Nations and foreign governments.

Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking: Policy brief

Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Policy brief cover image
This policy brief complements Conciliation Resources’ Accord (issue 19), 'Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking'. It provides analysis and advice on the best way to use such tools constructively.

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes

May 2005
Accord Armed Groups: Cover image
Accord issue 16 explores the case for engagement with armed groups and the lessons learned from peacemaking practice. Highlighting both opportunities and challenges, it suggests that the range of engagement options and potential interveners makes a strong case for engagement.

Engaging armed groups

Non-state armed groups are central figures in internal armed conflicts.  Their objectives and use of violence spark controversy about appropriate responses to their action, particularly in the context of the ‘war on terror’. Yet over the past two decades, armed groups have taken part in peace processes on every continent, resulting in many experiences of dialogue and peace negotiations.

Further reading: Accord Incentives

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Further reading

A further reading list to accompany the articles of Accord 19.

International involvement and incentives for peacemaking in northern Uganda

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Peacemaking in northern Uganda
Mareike Schomerus examines the motivations of the Ugandan government and the Lord's Resistance Army for engaging in the Juba talks and reflects on how the overpowering effects of international agendas on fragile negotiations could be addressed.

International support for peace: Too much to ask?

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: International support for peace
Debates on how international conditionalities or incentives have supported or undermined peacebuilding in Sri Lanka fail to ask whether they have even been seriously tried. Brian Smith reviews the failure to implement the aid conditionalities of the 2003 Tokyo Conference.

Prejudice, asymmetry and insecurity

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Prejudice, asymmetry and insecurity
Suthaharan Nadarajah discusses the Sri Lankan peace process from 2002 and concludes that international action served to tilt the strategic balance in favour of the state rather than ensuring the parties addressed the underlying causes of conflict.

The limits of external influence

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: The limits of external influence
Former government negotiator Harim Peiris reflects on three aspects of international involvement in Sri Lanka's peace process: the impact of terrorist designations on the LTTE, the use of aid as a lever, and the orchestration of international support.