Peace in Times of War

On 25 January 2014 the Government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front concluded sixteen years of negotiations seeking to putting an end to an armed conflict which originated in 1968. Kristian Herbolzheimer explains the origins of the conflict, details the innovations that led to the deal, outlines the ramifications of the deal itself, and warns that lessons need to be learnt to ensure that the implementation of the agreement is effective.

Nepal

The enduring dominance of established elites and the historic discrimination of marginalised communities acted as key drivers to sustain Nepal’s civil war from 1996 to 2006.

In response, how to support greater inclusion has been central to efforts to build peace. Yet it has proved challenging to push forward the inclusion agenda in Nepal’s complex post-war social and political landscape.

Inclusive change has been variously advocated, incited, resisted and negotiated amongst social and political groups – elite and non-elite - for decades and in multiple forms

Afghanistan - Local governance, national reconciliation and community reintegration

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Karim Merchant and Ghulam Rasoul Rasouli analyse attempts in Afghanistan to use Community Development Councils (CDCs) to roll out a national reintegration programme for ex-combatants at the local level. The CDCs’ main function is to implement the National Solidarity Program (NSP), established in 2003 as “the largest people’s project in the history of Afghanistan”.

Local governance and peacebuilding: challenges of legitimate representation

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Ken Menkhaus asks how viable it is to mobilise the legitimacy of local leadership for peace. Legitimate representation is difficult to identify in talks to end violent conflict that can include a proliferation of armed groups, severe social and political fragmentation, or communal or criminal violence.

Nepal - Constitutional reform: peace, power and representation

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Bipin Adhikari explains how peace and constitution-making processes in Nepal are at a pivotal point. The dissolution of the first Constituent Assembly in 2012, after four years’ deliberation and with no constitution agreed, reflected the scale of the challenge of post-war transition in Nepal.

Somalia: legitimacy of the Provisional Constitution

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Abdihakim Ainte examines the complexities of constitutional processes in Somalia, explaining how the allocation of decision-making responsibilities at key moments has undermined the legitimacy of the 2012 Provisional Constitution for many Somalis. The Provisional Constitution has a core peacebuilding function to define an acceptable social contract.

Yemen - National Dialogue Conference: managing peaceful change?

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Ali Hassan explains how the National Dialogue Conference in Yemen has tried to tackle drivers of conflict and respond to imperatives of social and political change. The conference has organised working groups to address specific topics such as self-determination for the south, transitional justice, and rights and freedoms.

What is legitimacy and why does it matter for peace?

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Kevin Clements opens the publication by exploring why legitimacy matters for peace, reviewing the rich and long intellectual tradition of political legitimacy.

Introduction: Legitimacy and peace processes

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Accord 25 co-editors Achim Wennmann and Alexander Ramsbotham provide an introduction to the publication, offering a brief elaboration on its structure and concept, and introducing the focus of the publication's subsequent articles.

Foreword

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014
Andy Carl, Executive Director and co-founder of Conciliation Resources, provides a foreword to the 25th edition of the Accord series on the 20th anniversary year of Conciliation Resources.