Negotiating peace: Restarting a moribund process

Peace by piece: Addressing Sudan’s conflicts
Dec 2006
Accord Sudan: Restarting a moribund process
Former SPLM/A negotiator Cirino Hiteng Ofuho’s account of the IGAD negotiations identifies the factors that reinvigorated the process after 1997 and discusses the importance of the principle of self-determination to southern Sudanese.

Negotiating peace: The road to Naivasha

Peace by piece: Addressing Sudan’s conflicts
Dec 2006
Accord Sudan: The road to Naivasha
Former government negotiator Mohamed el-Mukhtar Hussein recounts the government's negotiations with the SPLM/A from 1989 to 2005 and looks ahead to the challenges of implementing the CPA.

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes: Policy brief

Sep 2009
Accord policy brief: Armed groups cover image
This policy brief summarises Conciliation Resources’ Accord (issue 16) 'Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes' and focuses on the importance and challenges of negotiating with armed groups.

Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking: Policy brief

Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Policy brief cover image
This policy brief complements Conciliation Resources’ Accord (issue 19), 'Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking'. It provides analysis and advice on the best way to use such tools constructively.

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes

May 2005
Accord Armed Groups: Cover image
Accord issue 16 explores the case for engagement with armed groups and the lessons learned from peacemaking practice. Highlighting both opportunities and challenges, it suggests that the range of engagement options and potential interveners makes a strong case for engagement.

Engaging armed groups

Non-state armed groups are central figures in internal armed conflicts.  Their objectives and use of violence spark controversy about appropriate responses to their action, particularly in the context of the ‘war on terror’. Yet over the past two decades, armed groups have taken part in peace processes on every continent, resulting in many experiences of dialogue and peace negotiations.

The limits of leadership: Elites and societies in the Nagorny Karabakh peace process

Dec 2005
Accord Nagorny Karabakh: Cover image
As Azerbaijan and Armenia remain in deadlock over Nagorny Karabakh, Accord issue 17 highlights the challenges and obstacles to a sustainable agreement.

Nagorny Karabakh

Since the ceasefire in 1994 Azerbaijan and Armenia have remained in deadlock over Nagorny Karabakh in the South Caucasus. An internationally sponsored peace process based on closed talks between the leaders has yielded several proposals but no agreement.

Accord 17 highlights the obstacles to a sustainable agreement and explores the challenge of bridging the gap between potential for settlement at the negotiating table and popular resistance to the compromises that this entails. It contains sections on:

Peace by piece: Addressing Sudan’s conflicts

Dec 2006
Accord Sudan: Cover image
Accord 18 focuses on Sudan and asks which issues were excluded from the process leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. It suggests that future initiatives must be more inclusive and better coordinated.


The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) on 9 January 2005 was hailed by some as the dawn of a new era for Sudan. However, Sudan has a number of interlocking conflicts that cannot be fully addressed by a bilateral agreement. The CPA is just one part – if a very significant one – of a piecemeal approach to resolving Sudan's conflicts that has produced separate agreements for Darfur and eastern Sudan. It is unclear if these can fit together as the jigsaw pieces of a comprehensive peace – or what pieces are still missing.