Former SPLM/A negotiator Cirino Hiteng Ofuho’s account of the IGAD negotiations identifies the factors that reinvigorated the process after 1997 and discusses the importance of the principle of self-determination to southern Sudanese.
This policy brief summarises Conciliation Resources’ Accord (issue 16) 'Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes' and focuses on the importance and challenges of negotiating with armed groups.
This policy brief complements Conciliation Resources’ Accord (issue 19), 'Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking'. It provides analysis and advice on the best way to use such tools constructively.
Accord issue 16 explores the case for engagement with armed groups and the lessons learned from peacemaking practice. Highlighting both opportunities and challenges, it suggests that the range of engagement options and potential interveners makes a strong case for engagement.
Non-state armed groups are central figures in internal armed conflicts. Their objectives and use of violence spark controversy about appropriate responses to their action, particularly in the context of the ‘war on terror’. Yet over the past two decades, armed groups have taken part in peace processes on every continent, resulting in many experiences of dialogue and peace negotiations.
Since the ceasefire in 1994 Azerbaijan and Armenia have remained in deadlock over Nagorny Karabakh in the South Caucasus. An internationally sponsored peace process based on closed talks between the leaders has yielded several proposals but no agreement.
Accord 17 highlights the obstacles to a sustainable agreement and explores the challenge of bridging the gap between potential for settlement at the negotiating table and popular resistance to the compromises that this entails. It contains sections on:
Accord 18 focuses on Sudan and asks which issues were excluded from the process leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. It suggests that future initiatives must be more inclusive and better coordinated.
The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) on 9 January 2005 was hailed by some as the dawn of a new era for Sudan. However, Sudan has a number of interlocking conflicts that cannot be fully addressed by a bilateral agreement. The CPA is just one part – if a very significant one – of a piecemeal approach to resolving Sudan's conflicts that has produced separate agreements for Darfur and eastern Sudan. It is unclear if these can fit together as the jigsaw pieces of a comprehensive peace – or what pieces are still missing.