From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process.
Publication date: 
Accord issue: 

Manuel Paulo charts the changing roles of the UN in Angola, from overseeing the withdrawal of Cuban troops, to monitoring peace agreements, to imposing sanctions on UNITA and playing a limited humanitarian role in the final years of the war. Its failings were partly caused by member states’ lack of interest and unwillingness to commit resources. With a limited mandate and capacity, the second UN Angola Verification Mission in particular struggled to monitor an agreement it had no role in devising. UN sanctions on UNITA were also initially poorly enforced but the 2000 Fowler Report broke new ground in naming and shaming those countries and companies that violated the sanctions. The article concludes with the lessons that have been learnt from UN experiences in Angola.